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Despite his short lifetime, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than secular vocal works mainly liederseven complete symphoniessacred musicoperasincidental music and a large body of piano and chamber music. His major works include the Piano Quintet in A major, D. Born in the Himmelpfortgrund suburb of ViennaSchubert's uncommon gifts for music were evident from an early age. His father gave him his first violin lessons and his elder brother gave him piano lessons, but Schubert soon exceeded their abilities. Inat the age of eleven, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt school, where he became acquainted with the orchestral music of HaydnMozartand Beethoven. He left the Stadtkonvikt at the end ofand returned home to live with his father, where he began studying to become a schoolteacher; despite this, he continued his studies in composition with Antonio Salieri and still composed prolifically. InSchubert was admitted to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde as a performing member, which helped establish his name among the Viennese citizenry. He gave a concert of his own works to critical acclaim in Marchthe only time he did so in his career. He died eight months later at the age of 31, the cause officially attributed to typhoid feverbut believed by some historians to be syphilis. Appreciation of Schubert's music while he was alive was limited to a relatively small circle of admirers in Vienna, but interest in his work increased significantly in the decades following his death. Felix MendelssohnRobert SchumannFranz LisztJohannes Brahms and other 19th-century composers discovered and championed his works. Today, Schubert is ranked among the greatest composers of Western classical music and his music continues to be popular. Of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth's fourteen children one of them illegitimate, born in nine died in infancy. At the age of five, Schubert began to receive regular instruction from his father, and a year later was enrolled at his father's school. Although it is not exactly known when Schubert received his first musical instruction, he was given piano lessons by his brother Ignaz, but they lasted for a very short time as Schubert excelled him within a few months. I was amazed when Franz told me, a few months after we began, that he had no need of any further instruction from me, and that for the future he would make his own way. And in truth his progress in a short period was so great that I was forced to acknowledge in him a master who had completely distanced and out stripped me, and whom I despaired of overtaking. His father gave him his first violin lessons when he was eight years old, training him to the point where he could play easy duets proficiently. Holzer would often assure Schubert's father, with tears in his eyes, that he had never had such a pupil as Schubert,  and the lessons may have largely consisted of conversations and expressions of admiration. Schubert wrote his earliest string quartets for this ensemble. Young Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salierithen Vienna's leading musical authority, inwhen his vocal talent was recognised. At the Stadtkonvikt, he was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozartthe symphonies of Joseph Haydn and his younger brother Michael Haydnand the overtures and symphonies of Beethovena composer for whom he developed a significant admiration.
Franz schubert compositionsComposer Franz Schubert received a thorough musical education and won a scholarship to boarding school. Although he was never rich, the composer's work gained recognition and popularity, noted for bridging classical and romantic composition. He died in in Vienna, Austria. As a child, his talents included an ability to play the piano, violin and organ. He was also an excellent singer. Franz was the fourth surviving son of Franz Theodor Schubert, a schoolmaster, and his wife, Elisabeth, a homemaker. His family cultivated Schubert's love of music. His father and older brother, Ignaz, both instructed Schubert early in his musical life. Eventually, Schubert enrolled at the Stadtkonvikt, which trained young vocalists so they could one day sing at the chapel of the Imperial Court, and in he earned a scholarship that awarded him a spot in the court's chapel choir. His educators at the Stadtkonvikt included Wenzel Ruzicka, the imperial court organist, and, later, the esteemed composer Antonio Salieri, who lauded Schubert as a musical genius. Schubert played the violin in the students' orchestra, was quickly promoted to leader, and conducted in Ruzicka's absence. He also attended choir practice and, with his fellow pupils, practiced chamber music and piano playing. Inhowever, Schubert's voice broke, forcing him to leave the college, though he did continue his instruction with Antonio Salieri for three more years. Inunder pressure from his family, Schubert enrolled at a teacher's training college in Vienna and took a job as an assistant at his father's school. Schubert worked as a schoolmaster for the next four years. But he also continued to compose music. In fact, between andSchubert proved to be a prolific songwriter. Bythe young composer had written a number of piano pieces, and had produced string quartets, a symphony, and a three-act opera. Boosted by a wealth of late 18th-century lyric poetry and the development of the piano, Schubert tapped the poetry of giants like Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, showing the world the possibility of representing their works in musical form. InSchubert, who had not only found a welcome audience for his music but had grown tired of teaching, left education to pursue music full-time. His decision was sparked in part by the first public performance of one of his works, the "Italian Overture in C Major," on March 1,in Vienna. The decision to leave school teaching seems to have ushered in a new wave of creativity in the young composer. That summer he completed a string of material, including piano duets "Variations on a French Song in E minor" and the "Sonata in B Flat Major," as well as several dances and songs. Schubert's musical output also included the score for the play "Die Zauberharfe" The Magic Harpwhich debuted in August The resulting performances, as well as Schubert's other pieces, greatly expanded his popularity and appeal. He also showed himself to be a visionary. His composition "Quartettsatz [Quartet-Movement] in C minor," helped spark a wave of string quartets that would dominate the music scene later in the decade. But Schubert had his struggles as well.
Franz schubert biographyThe composer delighted in the beauty of the countryside and was touched by the enthusiastic reception given everywhere to his music. The close of saw him engrossed in songs to poems by his friend Mayrhofer and by Goethe, who inspired the masterly Prometheus. It was followed by the performance of incidental music for the play Die Zauberharfe The Magic Harpgiven in August of the same year. The lovely, melodious overture became famous as the Rosamunde overture. Schubert was achieving renown in wider social circles than the restricted spheres of friend and patron. The wealthy and influential Sonnleithner family was interested in his development; their son Leopold became a great friend and supporter. At the close of the yearSchubert composed the Quartettsatz Quartet-Movement in C Minor, heralding the great string quartets of the middle s, and another popular piece, the motet for female voices on the text of Psalm Eighteen months later, opus 12 had been reached. These parties, called Schubertiadenwere given in the homes of wealthy merchants and civil servants, but the wider worlds of opera and public concerts still eluded him. He worked during August on a seventh symphony in E Minor and Major, but this, too, was put aside, along with many other unfinished works of the period. It was completed in February but was never performed. Two movements and a half-finished scherzo were completed in October and November At the close of Schubert contracted a venereal diseaseprobably syphilisand the following year was one of illness and retirement. He continued to write almost incessantly. Schubert spent part of the summer in the hospital and probably started work—while still a patient—on his most ambitious opera, Fierrabras. The early months of were again unhappy. Schubert was ill, penniless, and plagued by a sense of failure. Once more his health and spirits revived. Although his operas remained unperformed, there were frequent public performances of his songs and part-songs in Vienna during these and the following years. Publication proceeded rapidly, and his financial position, though still strained, was at any rate eased. He sketched a symphony during the summer holiday, in all probability the beginnings of the Symphony in C Major Greatcompleted in New friends Moritz von Schwinda young painter, and Eduard Bauernfeld, a dramatist, were almost continuously in his company during this period. Franz Schubert. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Franz schubert factsFranz Schubertin full Franz Peter Schubertborn January 31,Himmelpfortgrund, near Vienna [Austria]—died November 19,ViennaAustrian composer who bridged the worlds of Classical and Romantic music, noted for the melody and harmony in his songs lieder and chamber music. Among other works are Symphony No. Franz Schubert was a 19th-century Austrian music composer and key figure in bridging the Classical and Romantic periods. He is noted for the melody and harmony in his songs and chamber music. He also produced several symphonies, masses, and piano works. Franz Schubert was born on January 31,near Vienna, Austria. He was one of five children of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth Schubert. Schubert received his music education foundation from his father and his eldest brother, playing the viola and the organ and studying music theory under the instruction of a parish church organist. Franz Schubert purposefully disavowed modulation via the smooth succession of pivot chords. He preferred to drop suddenly into unrelated, and therefore unexpected, keys, as in the transition from C major to E minor in the opening movement of his Symphony No. Franz Schubert is best remembered for his songs—also called lieder —and his chamber music. He also created symphonies, masses, and piano works. In October Franz Schubert developed typhoid fever as a resulting of drinking tainted water. He spent his last days in the company of his brother and several close friends. He died on November 19,in Vienna, Austria. He was 31 years old. Franz was their fourth surviving son. The elder Franz Schubert was a man of character who had established a flourishing school. The family was musical and cultivated string quartet playing in the home, the boy Franz playing the viola. He received the foundations of his music education from his father and his brother Ignaz, continuing later with organ playing and music theory under the instruction of the parish church organist. In he won a scholarship that earned him a place in the imperial court chapel choir and an education at the Stadtkonvikt, the principal boarding school for commoners in Viennawhere his tutors were Wenzel Ruzicka, the imperial court organist, and, later, the composer Antonio Salierithen at the height of his fame. He also attended choir practice and, with his fellow pupils, cultivated chamber music and piano playing. From the evidence of his school friends, Schubert was inclined to be shy and was reluctant to show his first compositions. His earliest works included a long Fantasia for Piano Dueta song, several orchestral overturesvarious pieces of chamber music, and three string quartets. The interest and encouragement of his friends overcame his shyness and eventually brought his work to the notice of Salieri. Rejected for military service because of his short stature, he continued as a schoolmaster until The numerous compositions he wrote between and are remarkable for their variety and intrinsic worth. They are the products of young genius, still short of maturity but displaying style, originality, and imagination. Besides five string quartets, there were three full-scale masses and three symphonies. But at this period song composition was his chief, all-absorbing interest. The following year brought the composition of more than songs. The many unfinished fragments and sketches of songs left by Schubert provide some insight into the working of his creative mind. Clearly, the primary stimulus was melodic.
Franz schubert deathAlthough he died at the age of 31, he composed over one thousand pieces of music. There were other great composers who lived and worked in Vienna: HaydnMozart and Beethovenbut Schubert is the only one who was born in Vienna. He was the last great composer of the Classical music period, and one of the first of the Romantic period. Twelve children were born into the family, but only four of them lived to become adults. Schubert's father tried to persuade his sons to help at the school when they grew up. As a boy, the young Franz learned the violinpianoorgansinging and harmony. He soon became very good at them all. His teachers were all amazed at how quickly he learned. He was also very good at other subjects in school. In the holidays he played string quartets with his two brothers and his father. He wrote his first string quartets for them to play. By the age of 16 he had composed a lot of music, including his first symphony. His mother died. His father soon remarried. His stepmother was very kind to him and often lent him money. He had one strange thumb on his right hand. He had been rejected by the army because he was too short shorter than five feet and his sight was very poor. He still had composition lessons from Antonio Salieri. He often went to the opera where he heard some of the finest music of the time. He liked reading. He wrote a song called "Gretchen am Spinnrade" which is about the young girl in the book sitting at a spinning wheel dreaming of her lover. The piano has a gentle accompaniment which sounds like the throbbing of the spinning wheel. The music stops for a moment when the girl imagines her lover is kissing her, then the piano gradually starts again. It is a very famous song. When it was first published another composer whose name was also Franz Schubert, thought that somebody had published a song in his name because the music publishers sent it to him for correction. He sent a very angry letter back saying he had not composed that rubbish. It was difficult to find enough time to compose because he was a teacher. A man called Schober persuaded Schubert to give up teaching so that he could spend all his time composing. Soon he had become well known in all the drawing-rooms in Vienna where he met famous people, many of them musicians. He wrote so many wonderful pieces that it seems strange that the music publishers did not want to publish them. They were only interested in publishing works written by performers, but were not very interested in people like Schubert who just composed. During the last few years of his life Schubert was ill. He was often desperately poor and composed in bed to keep warm. Schubert visited Beethoven on 19 March Beethoven was dying. Schubert was one of the torch-bearers at his funeral. A year and a half later Schubert, too, had died.
Franz Peter Schubert was among the first of the Romantics, and the composer who, more than any other, brought the art song lied to artistic maturity. During his short but prolific career, he produced masterpieces in nearly every genre, all characterized by rich harmonies, an expansive treatment of classical forms, and a seemingly endless gift for melody. Schubert began his earliest musical training studying with his father and brothers. Having passed an audition, Schubert enrolled at the Stadtkonvikt that trained young vocalists to eventually sing at the chapel of The Imperial Court. Schubert began to explore composition and wrote a song that came to the attention of the institution's director, Antonio Salieriwho along with the school's professor of harmony, hailed young Schubert as a genius. Inafter Schubert 's voice broke, he returned to live with his father, who directed him to follow in his footsteps and become a schoolteacher. Schubert begrudgingly complied and worked miserably in that capacity by day, while composing prolifically by night. He had written more than songs as well as numerous symphonic, operatic, and chamber music scores, before he reached the age of Schubert finally left his teaching position to dedicate himself completely to musical pursuits. When he left that post in the fall, Schubert lived a somewhat bohemian lifestyle, composing and spending time with a group of friends that acted as his personal support system. InSchubert was commissioned by two opera houses, the Karthnerthor Theatre and Theatre-an-der-Wein, to compose a pair of operas. Schubert failed to secure a contract with a publisher, as none were willing to take a chance on a relatively unknown composer who wrote harmonically untraditional music. Schubertalong with the support of his artistic friends, published his own work for a collection of roughly subscribers. These efforts, however, were financially unrewarding, and Schubert struggled to sustain himself. His work garnered little attention and contemporary composers dismissed his music as presumptuous and immature. InSchubert was elected to the Musikverein of Graz, as an honorary member. Though this brought no financial reward and was an inconsequential appointment, Schubert relished its slight recognition, and to show his gratitude, composed his famous Unfinished Symphony. Five years later, Schubert 's music was featured at a concert at Vienna's Musikverein. His work was received quite enthusiastically, and to much critical acclaim. This marked the only time during the composer's life that he enjoyed such success.